This chapter briefly introduces the general monitoring concepts suggested in pertinent publications. General monitoring concepts provide a framework for setting up site-specific monitoring programmes and give general recommendations for potentially suitable techniques. The monitoring requirements are then described in more detail, as specified by the EU CCS Directive and the respective Guidance Documents and by the EU ETS Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines.

High-level regulations in place are summarised including the OSPAR and London protocol for protection of the marine environment and the Clean Development Mechanism. Examples of international and national regulations in place focus on the EU CCS Directive and its transposition into national CO2 Storage Acts.

Examples of monitoring activities are summarised for five current CO2 injection projects involving the full-scale industrial projects at Sleipner, Weyburn-Midale, In Salah and the smaller scale (research) pilot projects K12-B and Ketzin. Complex monitoring programmes have been implemented at the different sites. These monitoring programmes comprise methods that are needed in order to perform the required operational and HSE monitoring as well as technique/tools to be tested for research purposes. 

General monitoring concepts give a comprehensive guideline on parameters to be potentially monitored and features to be considered when selecting appropriate monitoring techniques. However, there is still a need for guidance on how to transfer general recommendations in monitoring concepts to comprehensive, adequate, site-specific monitoring plans. In particular, the criteria to be used to define adequate and comprehensive monitoring plans are still a matter of debate. This chapter introduces published general monitoring concepts, summarises international and national regulations defining requirements for monitoring and illustrates monitoring activities in five current CO2 storage projects to support this debate. For more specific guidance on establishing a site-specific monitoring plan the reader is referred to Chapter 4.


in depth

3.1 General concepts and proposed monitoring guidelines

General monitoring concepts provide a high-level framework for setting up site-specific monitoring plans and give genera...

3.2 Regulations in place

At the international level, major regulations that affect CCS are international conventions dealing with or possibly app...

3.3 Monitoring in selected current CO2 storage projects

Complex monitoring programmes have been deployed in current pilot and demo projects in order to respond to the requireme...